为配合注蒸汽热采技术用于海上稠油的乳化降黏，用自制的水溶性乳化降黏剂 SP（阴-非离子表面活性剂）配制水溶液，将渤海油田海上稠油与表面活性剂水溶液以油水质量比 70∶30混合制得 O/W型乳状液。研究了矿化度、pH值、温度和 SP浓度等因素对乳状液稳定性的影响，以乳化体系在 50℃下静置 60 min的出水率作为体系的稳定性表征参数，出水率越高、稳定性越差。此外，通过测定表面活性剂溶液和稠油间的界面张力，分析了乳状液稳定性机制。结果表明，矿化度、pH值对乳状液稳定性的影响最大，SP加量次之，温度的影响较小。随着矿化度的增加，界面张力和出水率先降低后增加，当矿化度为 55 g/L时，体系的界面张力最小，稳定性最好；钙离子对乳状液界面张力的影响大于钠离子。碱性条件有利于乳状液的稳定。随着 SP加量的减少，界面张力升高，乳状液稳定性降低。SP对海上稠油的最佳乳化温度为 50~ 70℃；SP耐温性良好，经 300℃的高温处理后仍具有良好的活性，可配合注蒸汽热采技术用于海上稠油的乳化降黏。图 9表1参 18
Aiming at assisting the steam injection technology for thermal recovery of offshore heavy oil in Bohai oilfield，the self-made water-soluble high temperature emulsified viscosity reducer SP was introduced to form an aqueous surfactant solution where the O/W emulsion was prepared with the oil-water mass ratio of 70∶30. The effects of salinity，pH value，temperature， surfactant concentration on the stability of emulsion were studied. Moreover，the effluent rate of 60 min resting at 50℃ was picked to determine the stability of the system. The higher the water yield，the worse the stability was. In addition，the stability mechanism of emulsion was analyzed by measuring the interfacial tension between surfactant solution and heavy oil. The results showed that the influence of salinity and pH value on the stability of emulsion was the greatest，followed by the dosage of SP，and the effect of temperature was smaller. With the increase of salinity，the interfacial tension and effluent rate decreased first and then increased. It was found to produce the minimum interfacial tension and the best stability under the condition of 55 g/L salinity. Compared with sodium ion，calcium ion played a dominate role on the interfacial tension，and the alkalinity condition promoted the system stability.With the decrease of surfactant concentration，the interfacial tension of the system increased while the stability of emulsion decreased. The optimum emulsifying temperature range of SP was found to be 50—70℃，and the activity of self-made SP was acceptable after 300℃ treatment，indicating that SP was not sensitive to high temperature. Thus，SP was suitable for the steam injection technology for thermal recovery of heavy oil.