为了提高馆陶、孤岛稠油的稳定性，考察了阴离子型分散剂AA（磺酸基型）、非离子型分散剂NA1（多元醇 型）、油酸、月桂酸和棕榈酸对馆陶、孤岛稠油沥青质溶解度的改善效果，筛选了分别对两种沥青质稳定分散作用 最好的两种分散剂NA1和AA，进一步考察了处理温度对分散剂改善效果的影响、分散剂与沥青质的相互作用方 式。研究结果表明，在较低的温度下，多元醇型非离子分散剂NA1对沥青质的稳定作用显著，能够显著增大溶液 中沥青质的饱和浓度；但当处理温度升高到80℃时，沥青质饱和浓度急剧下降，但仍比未添加NA1的沥青质饱 和浓度高得多。而含磺酸基的离子型分散剂AA改善效果受处理温度影响较小。另外，通过红外光谱分析发现， AA的磺酸基能够与沥青质中的N—H键、O—H键之间形成红移型氢键；NA1中的羟基O—H、醚键、酯基等官能 团能够与沥青质分子中的N、O、S等杂原子以及芳香共轭π键形成蓝移型氢键。两种分散剂与沥青质的相互作用 方式均为与沥青质分子通过氢键而结合。图11表3参15
In order to improve the stability of Guantao and Gudao heavy oil，the improvement effect of dispersant NA1，AA，oleic acid，lauric acid and palmitic acid on asphaltene solubility was investigated，and the dispersant NA1 and AA were chosed due to the stable dispersion to the two asphaltenes. The effect of treatment temperature on the improvement effect of the dispersant and the interaction mode between the dispersant and the asphaltene were further investigated. It was found that the polyol nonionic dispersant NA1 could significantly increase the concentration of asphaltenes in the solution at low temperature；when the temperature was raised to 80°C，the concentration dropped sharply，which was still much higher than the asphaltene concentration without added NA1. The improvement effect of the sulfonic acid group-containing ionic dispersant AA was less affected by the treatment temperature. In addition，it was obtained by infrared spectroscopy that the sulfonic acid group of AA could form a red-shift hydrogen bond with the N—H bond and the O—H bond in the asphaltene. A functional group such as the hydroxyl group O—H，ether bond or ester group in NA1 could form a blue-shift hydrogen bond with the hetero atom such as N，O or S in the asphaltene molecule and the aromatic ring system conjugated π bond. Both dispersants interact with asphaltenes by adsorbing on the surface of asphaltene molecules and forming hydrogen bonds.