文章摘要
产表面活性剂菌与稠油降解菌复配对原油黏度的影响
Synergistic Effect of Surfactant Producing Bacteria and Degrading Bacteria on the Viscosity of Heavy Oil
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 稠油  产表面活性菌  降解菌  强化作用  黏度
英文关键词: heavy oil  surfactant producing bacteria  degrading bacteria  strengthening effect  viscosity
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作者单位
王大威 1,2,张世仑 1,2,靖 波 1,2,何春百 1,2,张 健 1,2,马 挺 3 1. 海洋石油高效开发国家重点实验室北京 1000272. 中海油研究总院北京 1000273. 分子微生物学与技术教育部重点实验室南开 大学生命科学学院天津 300071 
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中文摘要:
      稠油微生物降解是微生物采油的重要机理之一,但其效率较低,不能明显改变稠油化学组成,降低稠油黏度,从而影响采油效率。针对这一问题,将产表面活性菌与稠油降解菌复配,通过测定菌种作用前后原油的黏度确定产表面活性菌与稠油降解菌的最佳复配比例;通过原油四组分分析和变性梯度凝胶电泳,研究了生物表面活性剂对稠油生物降解的强化作用。结果表明,产表面活性菌 T-1、X-3与稠油降解菌 QB26、QB36适宜的复配体积比为 2∶2∶1∶1。菌种复配作用后,稠油黏度明显降低,与单独使用降解菌相比降黏率平均提高 33.1%,胶质与沥青质平均降解率提高 8.0%和 4.9%。产表面活性剂菌的加入增加了表面活性剂含量,降低了胶质沥青质等相对重质组分的含量;产表面活性剂菌通过产生表面活性剂,使原油降黏增溶,形成小液滴,易于被稠油降解菌捕获降解,不仅降低稠油黏度,还提高了稠油降解菌的数量。生物表面活性剂对稠油生物降解具有明显的强化作用,在微生物采油技术中具有良好的应用潜力。图 1表 1参 19
英文摘要:
      Although microbial degradation of heavy oil was regarded one of the important mechanisms of microbial enhanced oil recovery,due to its low efficiency,it was not able to significantly change the chemical composition of heavy oil and reduce oil viscosity as well,therefore affected the extraction efficiency. To solve this problem,heavy oil degrading bacteria(ODB)and surfactant producing bacteria(SPB)were mixed,while the optimum ratio of SPB/ODB was determined by measuring the viscosity of heavy oil before and after bacteria compounding. The strengthening role of biosurfactants on heavy oil bio-degradation was studied through four-component analysis and denatured gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE)experiment. The results showed that an optimum compounding volume ratio of SPB(T-1)∶SPB(X-3)∶ODB(QB26)∶ODB(QB36)was 2∶2∶1∶1. After complex effect of bacteria,the viscosity of heavy oil declined significantly,the average reduction rate of viscosity rose by 33.1%,the average degradation rate of gum and asphaltene rose by 8.0% and 4.9% respectively,compared with the effect of degrading bacteria alone. Adding SPB increased the content of surfactants and decreased the components contents of relative heavy mass such as gum and asphaltene. Moreover,the surfactants generated by SPB reduced the viscosity of crude oil as well as facilitated the solubility, which consequently formed small droplets that could be easily captured and degraded by ODB. The above process could not only decrease the viscosity of heavy oil,but also raise the total amount of ODB. Biosurfactants possessed significant strengthening effect on the bio-degradation of heavy oil,which displayed productive application potential in microbial enhanced oil recovery technology
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